Author Archives: DrGale

The Use of Ketofol for Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Children with Hematological Diseases

In the above mentioned article, the authors describe a small series of patients (n= 20) ranging in age from 4-12 years  undergoing  bone marrow aspirations after receiving procedural sedation with a 1:1 admixture of propofol (10mg/ml) and Ketamine (10 mg/ml)[Ketofol]. The children received 0.5 mg/kg aliquots through peripheral IVs at one minute intervals until the desired sedation level was attained (Ramsey score 3-4).  All of the procedures were successful. The median dose of Ketofol was 1.25 mg/kg, median recovery time 23 minutes, and a low incidence of injection site pain, emergence phenomena, and/or diplopia. No adverse airway or hemodynamic issues occurred.


This small study demonstrates the efficacy of a combination of Ketamine and Propofol mixed in one syringe to adequately sedate children for short painful procedures. Clearly the numbers are too small to make any assumptions regarding the overall safety of Ketofol. Recovery time seems to be favorable.  This study does not include toddlers or teenagers for whom adverse affects may be more significant.  I would caution against extrapolating the use of Ketofol for lengthy procedures when pain is a small aspect of the procedure and the need for sedation is prolonged (i.e. PICC line insertions).

Contribute to the Discussion

Your experience and comments play an important role in understanding the clinical implications of this article.  Please take a few minutes to comment on your experience or express your opinion on the clinical utility of ketofol.


Pediatrics International

Thiopental: A Propofol Alternative?

There have been widespread reports of propofol shortages over the last several years.  This obviously creates a certain amount of anxiety in the anesthesia world given that propofol has become a common component of anesthetic regimens in the U.S.  However, the impact is also being felt, perhaps even more so, in the world of pediatric sedation.  Given the favorable characteristics of propofol, many pediatric sedation services have shifted almost entirely to a propofol based sedation regimen.

Despite all the anxieties, most places are still able to get propofol.  However, the question does remain… What would you do if you could not get propofol?  Would we revert back to oral chloral hydrate?  What about the pentobarb regimens we were all happy to leave in the past?

Dexmedetomidine is a viable option in many cases but most people would agree it is no propofol, especially from the standpoint of cost and recovery.  Interestingly, Dr. Gordon Gale from St. Louis University, has been using another regimen for years that approximates what we see when using propofol.  He describes his experience below.

Na Thiopental for procedural sedation

By Dr. Gordon Gale

In the 1980’s, prior to propofol, there was a necessity to sedate children for radiation therapy. At that time many children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia required prophylactic CNS radiation. In addition, children with Wilm’s tumor, retinoblastoma, and sarcomas also required radiation. Obviously, the children had to lie perfectly still for a short period of time (<5 minutes).

In my primary role as a pediatric oncologist, I started using Na thiopental to sedate young children for RT. We originally used chloral hydrate which was not only inefficient but largely ineffective and unreliable. I had some experience with pentobarbital, but was not satisfied with the prolonged sedation for short procedures and the unpleasant awakening for many children who had to be sedated daily for up to 6 weeks. Some children needed to be sedated twice a day. Prolonged sedations left little time for the children to drink and/or eat between sedations.

With thiopental, the rapid onset of sedation and short duration of effect seemed to make it an ideal agent for these short procedures.  Originally, I administered 2-4mg/kg as a bolus and then aliquots of 1-2 mg /kg every minute or so until the desired state of sleep.  Obviously, the children were closely monitored.  Some children required as much as 10-12 mg/kg total for the procedures.  I sedated 5- 10 children every year for anywhere from 10 to 30 days of radiation.  Thiopental was very effective and I found it to be safe.  Once I arrived at an adequate dose for a child, this dose remained amazingly consistent from day to day and there did not seem to be any tachyphylaxis.

Subsequently, I started to use thiopental along with fentanyl (2-3 µgm/kg) for painful procedures such as lumbar punctures and bone marrow aspirates. I found this combination to be effective and reasonably safe, although a low percentage of children became apneic.  I subsequently began using ketamine which I found to be more effective and safer.

In the eighties and nineties, I used Na Thiopental for some long procedures such as MRI and nuclear medicine scans. After the children were initially adequately sedated, I would routinely give 1-2mg/kg every 10 – 15 minutes. More recently, when I use thiopental for prolonged procedures, I give an initial bolus dose of 2- 4mg/kg and then a continuous infusion of 8mg/kg /hour and occasionally increase to 10mg/kg/hr if necessary.  The initial sedation is almost always accompanied by a big yawn and then sleep. The induction is actually much smoother than with propofol with less agitation (no burn). Anecdotally, my observation is that there is less hypotension as well (no firm data).

I am sorry that I do not have any scientific data but I have a lot of experience with Na Thiopental and find it to be very effective and safe for procedural sedation.

Gordon Gale M.D.

Professor of Pediatrics

Cardinal Glennon Children’s Medical Center

St Louis University

Other Shortages

It turns out that the current supply of Na Thiopental is not any more robust than that of the propofol.  However, these things are always changing.  It does seem that for certain select patients (severe egg allergy) or maybe even to bridge a temporary interruption in the supply of propofol, Na Thiopental might be an excellent alternative.

Thanks to Dr. Gale for sharing his experience with us on this innovative approach to quality sedation care for children.